Archivos de la categoría ‘Articles on English’

A Taste of Sonora: Cocido de Res
By MoKa Hammeken


At my grandmother’s, the famous “cocido de res Sonorense” (Sonoran cooked beef) was known as “puchero” (stew). She would greet us with this dish every time we visited her home on Calle de Xochicalco in Mexico City. My family always delighted in this, though personally I must admit I wasn’t much of a fan.

Cocido-res“Monica,” my grandmother would scold, “How is this possible? This is from where you are from, and it’s beef, how can you not like it? Taste it, it came out really well.”

It was always the same. We would eat this for the first two days because, in her excitement, she would always cook a lot. She really did prepare it well, but honestly I was always holding out for a milanesa, enchiladas, or tacos de canasta.

Now here in Puerto Peñasco, one day a friend of mine called up:

“It’s Tuesday, Cocido de Res day at Lolita’s; do you want some, because they’ll run out.”

“What is it?,” I asked naively.

“It’s like a beef broth with vegetables.”

I still didn’t understand the relationship of one with the other; I heard beef, broth, beef…I could leave the vegetables to the side if I didn’t like them.

“Ok,” I answered.

When my friend arrived at my home with a styrofoam cup, imagine my surprise to see this was the famous dish my family had baptized “puchero”!

I became a bit nostalgic; it was delicious (though not like my grandmother’s). While my friend lived here, she would go to Lolita’s religiously almost every Tuesday for their famous Cocido de Res.

The thing is, one cannot always go out to eat and/or buy enough for the whole family. Plus, what happens when it runs out and you’ve still got a hankering for it?

I decided to go to the phones for a recipe. This is the original, which my mother had jotted down in a notebook that no longer had a cover; it was as old as I. As she explained, everyone adds to or takes away whatever they seem fit based on personal taste. For example, she doesn’t add sweet potato or garbanzo, but she does throw in bone marrow to give the broth flavor, and then eats that on a salted tortilla.


  • ½ kilo of aldilla (skirt steak)
  • ½ kilo of sweet potato (there are those who substitute this with chayote)
  • 1 oxtail
  • ½ kilo potatoes
  • 100 gr. Chorizo
  • ¼ kilo green beans
  • 2 cups garbanzo beans
  • 4 zucchini
  • 3 soft corn
  • 3 pieces of squash
  • 3 garlic gloves
  • 1 handful of green cilantro
  • 2 tomatillos
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 4 liter water
  • ½ teaspoon pepper


Soak the garbanzo beans, then peel

Wash and cube beef (not too small)

Separate corn and clean, cut into segments (three or four depending on length)

Place beef in water (cubed pieces, oxtail, and (if you’re up for it) bone marrow) along with garlic and onion and cook to a boil.

Once pot begins to boil, remove foam from top and add garbanzo, corn, and salt.

Once cooked, add chorizo and remaining vegetables. Simmer on low until beef and vegetables are well cooked.

Ready! Serve hot. Ideal for the chilly evenings we’re having.

El Famoso Cocido de Res Sonorense
Por MoKa Hammeken


En casa de mi abuela se le conocía como “puchero” y nos recibía con él cada que íbamos de visita a su casa en la calle de Xochicalco en México, que mi familia se lo celebraba mucho pero que en lo personal no era muy fan.

-Mónica- me regañaba mi abuela – ¿Cómo es posible? Pero si es de tu tierra, y es de carne ¿cómo que no te gusta? Pruébalo, si me queda bien bueno-. Siempre era lo mismo; los primeros dos días comiendo eso porque en su entusiasmo hacía muchísimo. Si le quedaba muy bueno pero yo la verdad estaba esperando una milanesa, enchiladas o tacos de canasta.





The modern metropolis of Ciudad Obregón in the rich Yaqui Valley is an indication of what Mexico hopes to accomplish in the future. Irrigation as brought new lands under cultivation. Area is large wheat producer.


A modern farming scene in Sonora’s rich productive Yaqui Valley

Aportacion de Joaquín Hndez. al Historico Cajeme.


The last Mexican Vaquero

Perched on his stead in the Sierra Madres mountains, Diego Madrid, 70, talks about life as a Mexican vaquero in the isolated Sonoran desert.

By Amy Willis, Rancho Los Banos, Sonora


In the barren scrubland of the north Mexican desert, Diego Madrid rides alone amid the thorned tentacles of Ocotillo cactuses, Jackrabbits and high Sierras. There is no civilisation for miles.

Spotting the recently sheathed skin of a rattle snake, the bobbing white tail of a Pronghorn Antelope or the hollowed carcass of a wild Javelina can be a matter of life or death for a cowboy trekking in the mountains; signaling the stirring of a venomous creature or a carnivore on the prowl.

At 70 years-old, Diego is one of the last real Mexican vaqueros – a livestock herder whose traditions and ways of working the cattle are considered the root of all cowboy skills in the Wild West today.


Diego, who has three sons and one daughter, has spent his life working in the foothills of the Sierra Madres and knows the 30,000 acres of desert savanna as if it was palm of his own hand.

For him, every gulley, crease or mound in the land tells a story. Whether it is a horse that isn’t from the ranch or a mountain lion that has captured a calf, he can tell what is happening by studying their tracks. “It is an important skill,” he says.

As Diego saddles up his horse, making sure the leather horn fits securely over the animal’s wither, he does so quietly. The younger cowboys around him are larking around, lassoing each other.

He slides his full suede chaps over his jeans and snaps the buckles of his spurs shut. He affixes his lasso tightly to his saddle, tying the leather tassels in a quick-release knot. His Stetson-style hat is already moulded tightly to his head.

The group has 20 calves to catch, brand and castrate in the wooden corral a couple of miles ride away, having spent much of the week driving herds of cattle from the mountain peaks, down the valleys and into the corral.


The group set off on horseback, some of the cowboys bring up the rear in a pickup truck.

Born in nearby village San Juan del Rio, Diego has spent nearly 50 years working at Rancho Los Banos in the mountains where he still works today. The ranch, one of the largest per hectare in northern Mexico, has recently opened its doors to westerners, sharing some of the traditions of the vaqueros.

A couple of miles ride down a winding dirt track, a dozen calves are huddled in a corner of the corral. As the vaqueros arrive, the animals concertina together, their eyes flitting between each man as he dismounts and gathers his lasso. One of the cowboys, wearing a baseball cap, is casually sharpening a knife as he learns against a truck while another is chatting on his mobile phone. Diego is by the wooden fence watching the calves.


Vaqueros learn their trade through knowledge passed down the generations, Diego explains through translator Manuel Valenzuela, whose family own the ranch.

As a little boy he would trail his father, Dario Madrid, helping handle the animals, weaving lasso rope, and fixing the leather pommels, cantles and fenders of the elaborate but sturdy western saddles.


“The Yaquis – Most Stubborn Fighters on Earth”


Fotos: Raquel Padilla Ramos

Originario de Polonia, muy joven vino al país y adquirió carta de ciudadanía mexicana. Radicado en el Estado causó alta en la Guardia Nacional el 1o. de marzo de 1873 a las órdenes del coronel Ángel Elías. En 1876 fue nombrado mariscal de Colonias Militares.

En 1882 fue ascendido a capitán de auxiliares del Ejército y comisionado en el Escuadrón de Colonias. Ascendió a mayor y pasó a mandar el grupo de gendarmería fiscal establecido en Magdalena.

En junio de 1906 desalojó a los rangers americanos que el gobernador Izabal usó para someter a los obreros en Cananea. Ascendió a coronel en 1907. En febrero de 1912 se retiró del Ejército después de 35 años de servicios. En junio siguiente fue llamado a filas para combatir a las partidas orozquistas que invadieron el Estado y ganó la acción de La Dura.


Extend History:

My dear friend, Mark Kasal stopped by Calvary Cemetery the other day to see if he could find Col. Emilio Kosterlitzky’s gravesite. It took the staff (all Hispanic) a long time to locate it and they finally did after he looked Emilio up on Wikipedia on his cell phone and gave them the date of his death. There were other names similar to his last name but the others were spelled differently. None of them knew anything about the Colonel.

Next to him is his daughter, Anita who died at only 17. She was an accomplished musician and had recently had a performance at the Ebell Club in Los Angeles.

Emil Kosterlitzky was born on November 16, 1853 in Moscow, to a German mother and Russian Cossack father. He was noted for his language ability; he spoke English, French, Spanish, German, Russian, Italian, Polish, Danish and Swedish. In his teens, Emil joined the Russian Navy as a midshipman. By 1871, at the age of 18, he deserted his ship in Venezuela. Kosterlitzky then traveled to the Mexican state of Sonora, where he changed his name to Emilio and joined the Mexican Army.


During the 1880s he fought in the Mexican Apache Wars. He also assisted American troops pursuing Apaches across the border under the 1882 United States–Mexico reciprocal border crossing treaty. Kosterlitzky became known to the American troops, who called him the “Mexican Cossack”. In 1885, Kosterlitzky was appointed commander of the Gendarmería Fiscal, the customs guard for the Mexican government, by President Porfirio Díaz.

In 1913, Kosterlitzky was captured in Nogales, Sonora, by revolutionaries during the Mexican Revolution. He was jailed until 1914, when he, his wife, Francesca, and two daughters moved to Los Angeles, California, in the United States, where he became a translator for the U.S. Postal Service. During World War I, he pretended to be a German physician. He returned to Mexico in 1927, to investigate a plot against the government of the state of Baja California. Kosterlitzky died in Los Angeles on March 2, 1928, and is buried in Calvary Cemetery in East Los Angeles.



Ya hace poco mas de par de días que fuimos testigos de como el equipo representante de México, los Tricampeones “Yaquis de Obregon” lograron la hazaña por segunda vez en estos ultimos años de ser nuevamente Campeón del Caribe en una final cardiaca, dramática y de un altisimo nivel, y por si fuera poco, con la emoción de los extra-innings marcando de pasada record’s de duración con 18 entradas y de tiempo con 7:24 Hrs. para una final.

Que recuerde, han sido verdaderamente pocos los juegos de Temporada Regular sin limite de tiempo de Beisbol que han terminado pasadas las 3:00 de la mañana y con casi la totalidad de los aficionados a la espectativa, final como esta, en tan imponente y nuevo escenario como el Estadio Sonora,  será dificil igualarla en muchisiomo tiempo.

FELICIDADES A NUESTROS YAQUIS TRICAMPEONES!!!, despues de tantos años de sequia, hemos disfrutado estas ultimos 7 temporadas de 4 campeonatos de la LMP y 2 campeonatos de la Serie del Caribe, una verdadera DINASTIA!!!, esperemos dure mucho tiempo con esta Plantilla de Jugadores tan equilibrada, con el manager Eddie Diaz y esta afición esperemos y si dios lo permite seguiremos disfrutando de este Equipazo, que sigan los Exitos…!


México vence a Dominicana en 18 entradas y es el nuevo Campeón del Caribe

!Y Noooo No No No No Nooooooo, Díganle que no a esa pelota!… Y los Yaquis de Ciudad Obregón son los Campeones de la Serie del Caribe

El norteamericano Douglas Clark bateó cuadrangular en la entrada 18, guiando a los Yaquis de Ciudad Obregón de México a un dramático triunfo 4-3 sobre los Leones del Escogido de República Dominicana, la madrugada del viernes, en la gran final de la Serie del Caribe Hermosillo 2013.


Ciudad Obregón reclamó su segundo título caribeño en tres años y el séptimo para México.

Tomateros de Cualiacán (1996 y 2002) es el único otro club mexicano con dos cetros caribeños.

En un partidazo lleno de dramatismo, ambos equipos jugaron al “toma y daca” por 7 horas y 24 minutos, el encuentro más largo de todos los tiempos en la Serie del Caribe. Los quisqueyanos pegaron 18 hits y los aztecas apenas ligaron seis, pero dos fueron jonrones en extrainnings. Marco Carrillo (1-0) lanzó las últimas cuatro entradas en blanco para conseguir el triunfo, en tanto que Edward Valdez (0-1) fue el derrotado.

México tomó la ventaja en la 14ta. entrada por intermedio de un jonrón solitario del veterano Karim García contra el derecho Jailen Peguero, pero el legendario Miguel Tejada logró la igualada en el cierre del episodio con un sencillo después de dos outs contra el relevista Edgar González. Fue la empujada 47 de Tejada en clásicos caribeños, la marca del evento.


Los Yaquis estaban al frente 2-1 en el noveno con el estelar cerrador Luis Ayala, pero el jardinero Ricardo Nanita lo recibió con un descomunal cuadrangular por el prado derecho para empatar la pizarra. Ayala había permitido sencillo a Nanita en la undécima entrada que dejó a México en el terreno el domingo y jonrón de tres carreras a José Ramírez en una octava entrada de siete carreras de los quisqueyanos el martes.

El jonrón de Nanita estropeó la faena monticular del veterano derecho Rodrigo López, quien superó ligeramente en un extraordinario duelo de abridores al dominicano Angel Castro. López, quien lanzó el último juego completo de un pitcher en la Serie del Caribe (2002 en Caracas, Venezuela), trabajó 7.2 entradas de una carrera sucia, permitió seis imparables y abanicó a dos bateadores. Concluyó la serie con efectividad de 0.66.

Castro estuvo igual de imbateable, pero fue afectado por un error del jardinero derecho Yordany Valdespin y un titubeo del antesalista Luis Jiménez en la quinta entrada, cuando México anotó sus dos carreras.

Castro trabajó 7.2 entradas, permitió dos hits, dos carreras (una limpia) y ponchó a siete bateadores, para marcharse de la serie con 14 chocolates y efectividad de 1.84. Su desempeño en Hermosillo le hizo merecedor de un puesto en el roster de República Dominicana para el Clásico Mundial de Béisbol.


El Escogido ganaba 2-1 en el cierre del quinto capítulo, cuando el cubano Bárbaro Cañizares pegó doblete y Karim García lo movió a tercera con toque de sacrificio. Después que Oscar Robles recibió boleto, Agustín Murillo bateó rodado por la antesala y Jiménez parpadeó con la bola antes de sacar el out en primera base, pero permitiendo que anotara el empate.

El receptor José Félix bateó una línea al jardín derecho que no pudo manejar Valdespin para un costoso error que permitió anotar a Robles la vuelta de la ventaja y que el corredor se instalara en la intermedia.

Irónicamente, Valdespin había criticado el nuevo sistema de competencia en la Serie del Caribe que permite que un equipo con 5-1 como Dominicana sea eliminado en la final por uno con 3-3 como México. En el formato tradicional del campeonato, los quisqueyanos habrían ganado la corona al final de seis días de un todos contra todos.

Más de 16 mil parroquianos colmaron las gradas del Estadio Sonora y otros varios miles vieron el partido en una pantalla gigante en la explanada principal del parque. Las siete jornadas de la edición 55 de la Serie del Caribe se celebraron a casa llena.

La Serie del Caribe de Hermosillo será recordada por ser la primera con un formato con final incluida, la inauguración del Estadio Sonora y el tremendo apoyo del público. La próxima versión se realizará en Isla Margarita, Venezuela, en febrero del 2014.


La Belleza tambien presente en la Serie del Caribe


Nota Afin

Mexico captures Caribbean Series in 18-inning thriller
Clark’s homer gives Mexico’s Yaquis de Obregon second title in three years
By Alden Gonzalez /

HERMOSILLO, Mexico –- It took a lot longer than anyone would have ever anticipated, but nobody cared. At 2:43 a.m. MT, after 18 innings and almost eight hours of low-scoring baseball, Mexico’s very own Yaquis de Obregon prevailed over a powerhouse Dominican squad, outlasting the defending champs with a 4-3 victory that gave the locals a Caribbean Series title to celebrate.

Omar Canizalez

Now, they’ll party ‘til the sun rises.

“They’re the ones who push us. They’re the ones who keep us going,” Royals right-hander Luis Mendoza, who pitched Obregon into the championship game with a near no-hitter, said as he gazed upon the fans in a still-packed Estadio Sonora after the closing ceremonies. “They were here the whole game. Nobody ever left. That’s why we’re here.

“This championship is for them.”

And it was Massachusetts-bred Doug Clark who gave it to them with a wall-scraper that barely made it over the right-field fence with one out in the top of the 18th. His home run provided the final blow in defeating the Dominican Republic’s vaunted Leones del Escogido, and it put the finishing touches on a historically long game.

The time of game (seven hours, 28 minutes) was a record for the Caribbean Series, which has been played 55 times. So were the 21 pitchers used. And the 18 innings tied a 2007 game for the most ever.

In total, 507 pitches were thrown.

And it was 5:43 a.m. in the Dominican Republic when a 5-1 Escogido team fell just short of winning its third title in four years.

“This was a game for the ages,” Clark, the MVP of the finals, said while trying to muster his best Spanish. “This is like three or four games in one. We had the game in our hands twice and they came back. But they’re a very dangerous team, and we had to maintain our focus every inning.”

Before Mexican Pacific League legend Karim Garcia led off the top of the 14th with a go-ahead homer, Obregon had just four hits through 13 innings. Before Caribbean Series hero Miguel Tejada came up with a two-out, game-tying RBI single in the bottom-half of the frame, Escogido was 0-for-12 with runners in scoring position.

Four innings later, Clark broke another prolonged silence, feasting on a breaking ball out over the plate thrown by Edward Valdez.

Clark is 36. From 1998 to 2007, he toiled in the Minors mostly as a left fielder, seeing action in only 14 games from 2005-06 with the Giants and A’s. From 2008-10, he played in Korea. And over the past three years, he’s made a living in Mexico, all for a moment like this.

“This,” Clark said, “is the best feeling of my life. My wife is here, my son is here -– he was born here in Mexico. This is a moment that we’ll never, ever forget.”

The fact Mexico even had this opportunity was the product of a new format, which tacked a championship game onto the end of the original double-round-robin format. Had the previous rules been in place, Escogido would’ve clinched the championship with Tuesday’s win over Obregon, which went 3-3 in its six round-robin games.

Obregon -– with other past and present Major Leaguers in Luis Ayala, Alfredo Amezaga, Marlon Byrd and Dennys Reyes –- was making its third straight trip to the Caribbean Series as the Mexican Pacific League champs. The title was the club’s second in three years, and it marked the first time since 2005 that Mexico captured the crown in a year it hosted the Caribbean Series.

Obregon did it by beating an Escogido team that boasts the likes of Hanley Ramirez, Miguel Tejada, Fernando Rodney, Julio Lugo and Fernando Tatis, who was out for the final due to a leg injury.

“We’re champions of the Caribbean Series,” Mexico’s Dominican-born manager, Eddie Diaz, said. “No one can ever take that away from us.”

Obregon starter Rodrigo Lopez and Escogido starter Angel Castro each pitched well through 7 2/3 innings, with Castro giving up two runs (one earned) and Lopez surrendering just one unearned run.

In the fifth, Mets prospect Jordany Valdespin let a two-out line drive bounce off his glove and trickle to the fence, giving Mexico its first lead, which would hold until the ninth.

Against Ayala in the bottom of the ninth, Ricardo Nanita –- a winter-ball legend who has played 11 seasons in the Minor Leagues but hasn’t reached the Majors -– tied it at 2. In the top of the 14th, Garcia hit one out to give Mexico yet another lead, but in the bottom half, Tejada came through with his two-out RBI single to the right side.

Then came Clark.

Finally, in the bottom of the 18th, in the wee hours of the morning, Donell Linares’ line drive fell snugly into Byrd’s glove in right field.

And then, at last, the party started.

“It’s Mexico, man, they love their baseball here,” Byrd said. “That’s what I’ve learned. I got down here early, played a whole season of winter ball. Baseball is the No. 1 sport. It’s just amazing.”

Alden Gonzalez is a reporter for Read his blog, Gonzo and “The Show”, and follow him on Twitter @Alden_Gonzalez. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.


1884 Mapa oficial del estado de Sonora República de México levantado y ejecutado de medidas, reconocimientos proprios y de otras fuentes fidedignas. Por el Ingeniero Civil C. E. Herbert .


Later edition with significant improvements of this extremely rare map of the State of Sonora, colored by Districts. The Royal Geographical Society in its 1885 Proceedings remarked of this map: “This map…is drawn on a larger scale than any yet published, and contains details not to be found in other maps of this same country”.

The map was apparently intended for the use of potential investors or land purchasers in Sonora, especially those interested in mines, which along with coal fields, are specifically noted. On the whole, this is a beautifully detailed map of the area that sets forth its physical features, towns, roads, rivers, ranches, and railroads in minute form.

The map also shows the Eastern coast of Baja, California, and the far southern part of Arizona. Although this map may seem late, it represented a genuine advance in the mapping of Mexico, which was geographically poorly understood at the time.

Although praising Herbert’s map of Sonora as “good,” Merrill, concerned primarily with mining interests, decries the lack of accuracy in Mexican maps available at the time. Because of its emphasis on mines, this map, as Merrill intimates, would have been an important one at the time of its publication.

Transcripción de un artículo aparecido en The 1922-23 Film Daily Year Book of Motion Pictures, publicado por New York, Wid’s Films and Film Folk, Inc., pp. 424-425. En el breve escrito se habla someramente de los cines que había en Sonora durante la década de los 20 del siglo pasado. La información se la debemos al vice-consul de los Estados Unidos en Guaymas.

Cine Lux en Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico

Sonora, Mexico

A survey of the industry in Sonora was made by Vice Consul Harold C. Wood, of the American Consulate at Guaymas, Mexico. It shows that 70% of all the pictures shown in the State of Sonora are American made. Says Mr. Wood:

“Among the Mexicans of all classes the serial is most popular. The serial pictures are not exhibited one episode at a performance, as is the custom in the United States, but owing to the fact that the films are exhibited in a motion picture circuit from Mazatlan, Sinaloa, to Nogales, Sonora, they must necessarily be shown as quickly as possible, and therefore six or seven episodes are shown in an evening. If the serial is a long one, its exhibition will be concluded in less than a week.

Next in favor are the comedies of the slapstick variety. These comedies are much liked by the lower classes, who constitute the majority of the motion picture patrons. However, the more educated and refined Mexicans prefer the heavy and romantic dramas, or a comedy of the lighter type.

Cine Royal en Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico

Source of Supply

About seventy per cent of the pictures shown here are of American make, and the remaining thirty per cent are distributed equally among German, French and Italian pictures.

As a rule, a town of 5,000 cannot support more than one motion picture theater. Guaymas with a population of 8,000, has had several new motion picture theaters started, but they have all failed with the exception of the Cine Majestic, which is now the only one in operation and which does a good business. Hermosillo, the State Capital, with a population of 12,000, supports three motion picture theaters, the Salon Atenas, with a seating capacity of 1,100; the Teatro Noriega, seating 1,600, and the Cine Sonora, which can seat 2,000 persons. The Cine Majestic, in Guaymas, has two hundred so-called orchestra seats and 400 seats in the gallery. The seats – both orchestra and gallery – are most uncomfortable. The Benito Juarez Theater in Empalme, an American railroad town, seats about 400 persons.




La minería es una actividad históricamente importante en la región Sonora-Arizona y sus patrones comerciales han cambiado en los últimos años. En el año 2000, los Estados Unidos importaron $61 millones en productos mineros desde México, a través de los puertos de entrada fronterizos de Nogales, cifra que representa una disminución de 57% respecto a 1990. La exportación de productos mineros de Estados Unidos hacia México a través de Nogales fue de $90 millones en el año 2000, o sea un incremento de 355% respecto a 1990.

Mining is an historically important economic activity in the Arizona-Sonora region, and the patterns of trade have been changing in recent years. The U.S. imported $61 million in mining products from Mexico through the Nogales border ports-of-entry in 2000, a decrease of 57% since 1990. U.S. exports of mining products to Mexico through the Nogales district totalled $90 million in 2000, an increase of 355% since 1990.




Sobre la línea divisoria entre el noroeste de Sonora y el suroeste de Arizona, se comparten grandes áreas protegidas en un bloque contiguo superior a los 3 millones de hectáreas.

En 1997, la Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca de México y el Secretario del Interior de Estados Unidos, firmaron el Acuerdo Binacional sobre el Desierto Sonorense.


Sonora, Arizona
by Greg Martinez

Ever since I can remember, my parents were part of a social club known as the Sonora Arizona Benefit Club. Club members primarily lived in California and Arizona. The club sponsored dances, picnics, and parties. They also provided assistance to needy families. The one thing all the club members had in common was a connection to a small town in Arizona by the name of Sonora.

In the early 1900s, workers of Mexican heritage provided cheap labor for the Ray Copper Mine about 60 miles southwest of Phoenix. The Kennecott Company, who owned the mine, built a little town by name of Ray, near the mine. Ray was where white mine workers and the all-white management lived. Mexican-American and Mexican mine workers lived in the nearby town of Sonora. The houses in Sonora were built by the people who lived there. The houses in Ray were built by professionals.

Discrimination was open, accepted, and institutionalized. Workers of Mexican heritage earned less than their white counterparts for the same jobs. Mexicans were not allowed in the bars in Ray. Segregation was enforced by the police, but generally not violently. After all, these people had to work together. The police in Ray would throw the Mexicans out of the bars there by saying “vamanos, vamanos!” I am not sure how the authorities determined who was of Mexican heritage and who was white. It was probably based on the intuition and judgment of the local police.

The town of Ray was named after the mine and the name gave the town an air of official legitimacy. The people of Sonora named their town after the neighboring Mexican state of the same name. Southern Arizona was a part of the Mexican state of Sonora before the Mexican-American War of the mid 1800s. People in Sonora were poor, but happy. Local merchants granted credit for clothes, food, and everyday necessities of life. People paid the merchants on payday. For entertainment, the town had two bars, a movie theater, and a baseball team— the Ray Sonora Tigers.